Adams won the mildly contested election of , garnering 71 electoral votes to Jefferson's 68, and became president in his own right.
Since electors did not indicate which office they were voting for, by coming in second to Adams, Jefferson became his vice-president. Their friendship had ended and they now struggled for control of the national agenda.
Adam's faced the challenge of having to succeed George Washington. He retained all of Washington's original cabinet members. Although some historians consider it a mistake, he believed that government officials should not be removed except for cause. Adams spent much of his term in Massachusetts, ignoring the details of patronage and communication that are essential to build a political base.
Adams continued the Washington's policy of neutrality in the ongoing war between Britain and France, selling supplies to both sides. Federalists were pushing for a war against France and closer ties to Britain. Adams wanted peace, but was caught up in the storm of events. The French were openly seizing American ships, leading to an undeclared war known as the Quasi-War of Adams sent diplomats to meet with the French Directory , only to be refused an audience and commercial relations were suspended.
In , the French demanded American diplomats pay huge bribes in order to see the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand , which the diplomats rejected.
Adams political family - Wikipedia
The Jeffersonian Republicans, suspicious of Adams, demanded the documentation, which Adams released using X, Y and Z as codes for the names of the French diplomats. A wave of nationalist sentiment overwhelmed the U. Congress approved Adams' plan to organize the navy.
- No Bed In Deseret!
- Platform 21 (Beyond the Veil);
- La regle du jeu nº16 (Revue La Règle du Jeu) (French Edition).
- Abigail Adams: Early Life;
- La guerre des vanités (Folio Policier) (French Edition).
Adams reluctantly signed the Alien and Sedition Act as a wartime measure. The Federalists made major gains in the election, and Congress passed a law for a much-enlarged army. Nominally it was under the control of Washington; in reality Hamilton controlled the new army, and Adams was left a byestander. In , Adams moved to end the war with France.
This angered hardline Federalists such as Alexander Hamilton , leading to an intraparty battle. Hamilton attacked Adams for his "ungovernable indiscretion" and "distempered jealousy". This, plus the unpopularity of the new taxes and perhaps also the Aliens and Sedition acts, weakened Adams.
Jefferson spent much of his time as vice-president attacking Adams, even hiring journalists to write scurrilous editorials about the president. Federalists fought back by passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. The Alien Act was designed to prevent immigrants, who supported Jefferson, from gaining citizenship, and the right to vote; the Sedition Act was designed to stifle critics of Adams. However, the attempts backfired; when Congressman Matthew Lyons was prosecuted under the Sedition Act, he and the Republicans became national heroes. In the election of , Jefferson overwhelmingly beat Adams.
While a lame duck president, Adams tried to stack the courts with Federalist judges so that his party could maintain some control of the government.
One such appointment led to the landmark Supreme Court case of Marbury v. The Adamses were the first residents of the White House. They moved there in the month of November, After Jefferson left office in he and Adams resumed their cordial friendship, and exchanged a series of highly insightful letters. He died July 4, at the age of 90 in Quincy, Massachusetts only a few hours after the death of Jefferson.
The day marked the 50th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence. Only one signer of the Declaration Charles Carroll of Carrollton outlived him. In an October survey of prominent professors of history, law, and political science, President John Adams was grouped in the "Above Average" group, ranked 13th, with a mean score of 3. Adams believed that Mahomet was a usurper, lawless, and arrogated everything to himself by the force of arms.
Such limitations did not satisfy Abigail, and she began to educate herself by reading the books in her father's library. She read all about different subjects and was probably one of the most well-read women in eighteenth-century America. Abigail regretted, however, that she did not have the opportunity to pursue a formal education, which was reserved for men. Abigail also learned a great deal during her frequent stays with her grandfather Colonel John Quincy, who was one of the most important citizens in the colony of Massachusetts. He served in several positions throughout his career, including as a colonel in the militia and as speaker of the Massachusetts House of Representatives.
Colonel Quincy's sense of public service and active concern for the community helped to shape young Abigail's values and provided her with a sense of public duty. He and his guests made the future first lady aware of the importance of freedom and Americans' aspirations to control their own destiny. As a woman of the s, Abigail could understand her nation's thirst for independence because she longed for it herself. She knew that her life would be decided by her choice of a husband.
Abigail wanted a husband who was her intellectual equal and one who would appreciate her accomplishments. Abigail met such a man in John Adams, a young lawyer from nearby Braintree. During their two-year courtship the young couple spent long periods apart and relied upon writing letters to keep in touch.
On October 25, , Abigail's father presided over their wedding. The young couple moved into the house John had inherited from his father in Braintree today a part of the National Park Service, Adams National Historical Park and began their life together. John and Abigail's marriage was successful from the outset. Abigail proved to be exceptionally capable of managing the family's finances and household.
Meanwhile, John's career took a dramatic turn for the better. He began to ride the court circuit traveling from one district to another building a successful law career.
John's frequent absences from home and family were prelude to more painful separations in the years ahead, but the young couple was willing to endure personal hardships for the good of their family and nation. On July 14, , in the Adamses' little farmhouse, John and Abigail's first child, Abigail, was born. In the spring of the following year, John Adams moved his family to Boston because his work was located there. But soon there was little time for socializing as dramatic events in Boston overshadowed other concerns. Abigail's loyalty to her husband was tested by one such event, the Boston Massacre on March 5, At the risk of his own popularity and career, John Adams chose to defend eight British soldiers and their captain, accused of murdering five Americans.
Although John was an ardent patriot and favored independence, he felt the soldiers had acted properly and been provoked into firing by an unruly mob. Also, he felt it was important to prove to the world that the colonists were not under mob rule, lacking direction and principles, and that all men were entitled to due process of law. Most Americans, driven by emotion, were angry with Adams for defending the hated "redcoats," but throughout the ordeal Abigail supported her husband's decision. In the end, Adams was proved correct and all nine of the men were acquitted of the murder charges.
While the verdict diffused this crisis, far greater ones were destined for the colonies. In John went to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as a delegate to the First Continental Congress where America made its first legislative moves toward forming a government independent of Great Britain. Abigail remained in Braintree to manage the farm and educate their children. Again, letter writing was the only way the Adamses could communicate with each other.
Their correspondence took on even greater meaning, for Abigail reported to her husband about the British and American military confrontations around Boston. Abigail was aware of the importance of these events and took her son John Quincy to the top of Penn's Hill near their farm to witness the Battle of Bunker Hill on June 17, Not all Americans shared the Adamses' vision of an independent nation.
To those that wavered, Abigail argued, "A people may let a king fall, yet still remain a people: but if a king lets his people slip from him, he is no longer a king. And this is most certainly our case, why not proclaim to the world in decisive terms, your own independence? Yet Abigail's vision of independence was broader than that of the delegates. She believed all people, and both sexes, should be granted equal rights. In a letter to John she wrote, "I wish most sincerely that there was not a slave in the province.
It always seemed to me to fight ourselves for what we are robbing the Negroes of, who have as good a right to freedom as we have. She was certainly justified in asking for such rights, for women such as Abigail, by tending the fields and doing other jobs, made possible the U. Despite Abigail's urgings to include all people in America's new system of government, her views were far too progressive for the delegates of the Continental Congress. While they did adopt the Declaration of Independence on July 4, , the members of Congress failed to guarantee the rights of blacks or women under the new government they established.
John soon was appointed president of the Board of War and turned to Abigail for advice on carrying out his job. She was the one person he could look to for advice and support in politics and government. Throughout his career, Adams had few confidants. Thus Abigail advised her husband, and John valued her judgment so much that he wrote his wife, "I want to hear you think or see your thoughts. In John Adams was sent to Paris on a special mission to negotiate an alliance with France. He subsequently remained in Europe from to , through a succession of different appointments, except for a three-month rest at home during which time he drafted the Massachusetts Constitution.
Now separated from her husband by the Atlantic Ocean, Abigail continued to keep their farm running, paid their bills, and served as teacher to their children. She particularity labored to develop the great abilities of her son John Quincy, who had joined his father in Europe. In one letter to her son, she inspired him to use his superior abilities to confront the challenges before him: "These are times in which a genius would wish to live. Great necessities call out great virtues.
In , with independence and peace secured from Great Britain, Abigail sailed to Europe to join her husband and son. Abigail spent four years in France and England while her husband served as U.